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Dyslexia and Learning Style: A Practitioner's Handbook by Tilly Mortimore BOOK
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN ISBN Printed and bound in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall This book is printed on acid-free paper responsibly manufactured from sustainable forestry in which at least two trees are planted for each one used for paper production. Mitchell Chapter 9 Phonological awareness and reading intervention Peter J.
Hatcher Chapter 10 Spelling: challenges and strategies for the dyslexic learner and the teacher Claire Jamieson and Sarah Simpson Chapter 11 Developing handwriting skills Jane Taylor Chapter 12 Managing the needs of pupils with dyslexia in mainstream classrooms Janet Hatcher Chapter 13 The assessment and management of psychosocial aspects of reading and language impairments Poppy Nash Chapter 14 Supporting language and literacy in the early years: interdisciplinary training Jannet A. We wondered first how much had changed and then how we would go about reflecting this.
And so we embarked on this new edition focusing on the relationship between spoken and written language difficulties. This second edition continues the theme of linking theory and practice. It is particularly aimed at practitioners in the fields of education, speech and language therapy and psychology.
All the original chapters have been updated, and new authors have joined us to reflect current developments. The first part of the book focuses on the nature of spoken and written language difficulties and includes chapters on current research into dyslexia, the dyslexic brain, speech, phonological awareness and spelling problems, and the predictors of literacy difficulties.
We then turn to the assessment of speech and language difficulties, reading and spelling skills, and reading comprehension, before moving on to consider techniques for training memory, contemporary approaches to reading intervention, and the teaching of spelling and handwriting skills. Finally, we consider how to manage the needs of people with dyslexia in the mainstream setting, including their psychosocial needs, and the interdisciplinary training of early-years workers.
We hope that this book will reach a wide range of practitioners and provide valuable advice to all those engaged in work with children who have problems of reading and language. We are indebted to many colleagues for their input, both those who have made formal contributions to this book and others who, through valuable discussion and joint assessments, have taught us much. We again thank our children, James, Laura and Christopher now much grown , and our husbands, Charles and Bill, for their continuing support and tolerance!
Maggie Snowling and Joy Stackhouse February vii Preface to the First Edition This book focuses on the relationship between spoken and written language difficulties and represents the culmination of our thinking over some 15 years. Our collaborators on this project include former students and professional colleagues who share the same theoretical framework as ourselves and also the desire to improve the educational opportunities of children who have language difficulties.
We are indebted to the many children who have participated in our research, and who have provided us with invaluable insights into the nature and the developmental course of their difficulties. Most of all, we thank Charles Hulme and Bill Wells for their inspiration, support and encouragement, and our children James, Laura and Christopher for giving us another perspective on speech, language and literacy development!
Nata K. Peter J. Hatcher Department of Psychology, University of York. Jane E. Margaret J. Snowling Department of Psychology, University of York. Jannet A. Conventions used in this book TIE Words in small capitals are target words or non-words that a child is being asked to say, read or write. Indicates a written target or response. Such utterances are often endearing, the source of family amusement, and no one worries much because an older sibling can translate.
Dyslexia, Speech And Language: A Practitioner\\\'s Handbook (Dyslexia Series (Whurr))
Language is a complex system that requires the coordinated action of four interacting subsystems. Phonology is the system that maps speech sounds on to meanings, and meanings are part of the semantic system. Grammar is concerned with syntax and morphology the way in which words and word parts are combined to convey different meanings , and pragmatics is concerned with language use.
An assumption of our educational system is that by the time children start school, the majority are competent users of their native language. Thus, oral language abilities are the foundation for later developing literacy skills. It is, however, important to distinguish speech skills from language abilities when considering literacy development. Learning to read in an alphabetic system, such as English, requires the development of mappings between speech sounds and letters — the so-called alphabetic principle — and this depends on speech skills.
On the other side of the coin, the generally backward group showed more hard signs of brain damage, for example cerebral palsy and epilepsy.
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Important at the time, the two groups differed in the progress they had made at a 2 year follow-up. Note, however, that this differential progress rate has not been replicated in more recent studies Shaywitz et al. First, IQ is not strongly related to reading.
Second, and perhaps more importantly, measures of verbal IQ may underestimate cognitive ability among poor Language skills and learning to read: the dyslexia spectrum 3 readers who have mild language impairments. Arguably, since that time, the most widely accepted view of dyslexia has been that it can be considered to be part of the continuum of language disorders. There is also evidence that children with dyslexia have trouble with long-term verbal learning. Instead, children learning to read in more regular or transparent orthographies than English, in which the relationships between spellings and their sounds are consistent e.
German, Italian, Spanish or Greek , learn to decode quickly, while at the same time rapidly acquiring an awareness of the phonemic structure of spoken words Ziegler and Goswami, Instead, impairments of phonological processing, such as rapid naming or poor verbal memory, are more sensitive diagnostic signs in these writing systems. Importantly, within the phonological core-variable difference model of dyslexia Stanovich and Siegel, , poor phonology is related to poor reading performance irrespective of IQ and also, it seems, irrespective of language background Caravolas, ; Goulandris, As we have seen, this problem at the level of phonological representation causes a range of typical symptoms, such as those described above.
Studies of normal reading development offer a framework for considering the role of phonological representations in learning to read and for understanding the problems of dyslexia. At the basic level, learning to read requires the child to establish a set of mappings between the letters graphemes of printed words and the speech sounds phonemes of spoken words. These mappings between orthography and phonology allow novel words to be decoded and provide a foundation for the acquisition of later and more automatic reading skills. In English, they also provide a scaffold for learning multi-letter e.
More formally, the relationship between oral and written language skills has been simulated in computational models of the reading process.
Dyslexia, Speech and Language: A Practitioner's Handbook, 2nd Edition
In the triangle model of Plaut and colleagues shown in Figure 1. Language skills that encompass grammar and pragmatics are needed for making use of context. A consequence is that although such children Figure 1. In this model, the mappings between orthography to phonology comprise the phonological pathway; mappings between orthography and phonology via semantics comprise the semantic pathway.
For English readers with dyslexia, a notable consequence is poor non-word reading Rack, Snowling and Olson, In short, learning to read is an interactive process to which the child brings all of his or her linguistic resources. It is, however, phonological processing that is most strongly related to the development of reading and the source of most dyslexic problems in reading and spelling. The phonological representations hypothesis therefore provides a parsimonious explanation of the disparate symptoms of dyslexia that persist through school to adulthood.
There is also biological evidence in support of the theory. What we do know is there is as much as a 50 per cent probability of a boy becoming dyslexic if his father is dyslexic about 40 per cent if his mother is affected and a somewhat lower probability of a girl developing dyslexia. Studies of readers with dyslexia using brain imaging techniques also supply a piece in the jigsaw see Chapter 3 in this volume. In one such study, we investigated differences in brain function between dyslexic and normal readers while they performed two phonological processing tasks Paulesu et al.
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Under positron Language skills and learning to read: the dyslexia spectrum 7 emission tomography scanning, they completed two sets of parallel tasks. The phonological tasks were a rhyme judgement and a verbal short-term memory task; the visual tasks were visual similarity judgement and visual short-term memory. Although these adults with dyslexia performed as well as controls on the experimental tasks, they showed different patterns of left hemisphere brain activation from controls during performance on the phonological processing tasks.
The brain regions associated with reduced activity were those involved in the transmission of language and, plausibly, allowed the translation between the perception and the production of speech. There are also, however, children with dyslexia who appear to have mastered alphabetic skills. The classic characteristic of these children is that, in single-word reading, they rely heavily upon a phonological strategy. They thus tend to pronounce irregular words as though they were regular e.
Although evidence in favour of distinct subtypes is lacking, most systematic studies of individual differences among children with dyslexia have revealed variations in their reading skills Castles and Coltheart, Moreover, it is important to note that neither theory refutes the evidence for the phonological processing problems of dyslexia. As we saw earlier, exception-word reading builds on a foundation of grapheme—phoneme mappings, but it is also supported by semantics. The issue of co-morbidity Some of the apparent difference between children with dyslexia may depend on what is known as co-morbidity.
Co-morbidity refers to the fact that there is a high probability that any developmental disorder will cooccur with at least one other disorder. The cause of this co-morbidity may be the sharing of brain mechanisms involved in the two disorders or the sharing of similar risk factors e. In cases of children with co-morbid disorders, it is easy to mistake a behavioural symptom of one disorder for that of the other.
Many children with dyslexia are clumsy, but not all are, by any means.
It is therefore important not to build a theory of dyslexia on the assumption that motor impairments play a causal role. A behavioural marker of poor executive skill is a problem of organization. Studies of the early language development of the children who go on to become dyslexic point to language impairments outside the phonological system, encompassing slow vocabulary development and grammatical delays Scarborough, Such children who are considered in detail in Chapter 7 in this volume have normal decoding skills but impaired reading comprehension.
The interaction of different language skills in determining the literacy outcomes of children at risk of reading failure can be seen clearly in studies of children at family risk of dyslexia.